A PEER CLUSTER THEORY APPROACH (2023)

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  • Brandi N. Burns
  • <alt> <li xml:lang="x-default">UNDERSTANDING WHY INDIVIDUALS USE CLUB DRUGS AT RAVES AND ELECTRONIC DANCE MUSIC EVENTS: A PEER CLUSTER THEORY APPROACH</li> </alt> Prince 12.5 (www.princexml.com) AppendPDF Pro 6.3 Linux 64 bit Aug 30 2019 Library 15.0.4 Appligent AppendPDF Pro 6.3 2020-11-17T14:35:47-08:00 2020-11-17T14:35:47-08:00 2020-11-17T14:35:47-08:00 1 uuid:967a9fa9-afda-11b2-0a00-508e9b020000 uuid:967a9faa-afda-11b2-0a00-804d4969ff7f endstreamendobj5 0 obj<>endobj3 0 obj<>endobj6 0 obj<>endobj12 0 obj<>endobj28 0 obj<>endobj29 0 obj<>endobj32 0 obj<>endobj33 0 obj<>endobj34 0 obj<>endobj35 0 obj<>endobj36 0 obj<>endobj37 0 obj<>endobj2062 0 obj<>229 0 R]/P 2091 0 R/Pg 2090 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2063 0 obj<><>231 0 R]/P 2094 0 R/Pg 2090 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2064 0 obj<>247 0 R]/P 2097 0 R/Pg 2096 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2065 0 obj<>269 0 R]/P 2100 0 R/Pg 2099 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2066 0 obj<>281 0 R]/P 2103 0 R/Pg 2102 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2067 0 obj<>370 0 R]/P 2106 0 R/Pg 2105 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2068 0 obj<>381 0 R]/P 2109 0 R/Pg 2108 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2069 0 obj<>389 0 R]/P 2111 0 R/Pg 2108 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2070 0 obj<>1818 0 R]/P 2114 0 R/Pg 2113 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2071 0 obj<>1819 0 R]/P 2114 0 R/Pg 2113 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2072 0 obj<><>1944 0 R]/P 2119 0 R/Pg 2117 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2073 0 obj<>1958 0 R]/P 2122 0 R/Pg 2121 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2074 0 obj<><>1962 0 R]/P 2125 0 R/Pg 2121 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2075 0 obj<><>1965 0 R]/P 2129 0 R/Pg 2127 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2076 0 obj<><>1968 0 R]/P 2132 0 R/Pg 2127 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2077 0 obj<><>1973 0 R]/P 2135 0 R/Pg 2127 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2078 0 obj<>1976 0 R]/P 2137 0 R/Pg 2127 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2079 0 obj<><>1979 0 R]/P 2141 0 R/Pg 2139 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2080 0 obj<><><>1988 0 R]/P 2146 0 R/Pg 2143 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2081 0 obj<><>1992 0 R]/P 2149 0 R/Pg 2143 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2082 0 obj<><>1996 0 R]/P 2152 0 R/Pg 2143 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2083 0 obj<><>2000 0 R]/P 2155 0 R/Pg 2143 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2084 0 obj<><>2005 0 R]/P 2159 0 R/Pg 2157 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2085 0 obj<><>2009 0 R]/P 2162 0 R/Pg 2157 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2086 0 obj<>106 0 R]/P 2165 0 R/Pg 2164 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2087 0 obj<>108 0 R]/P 2167 0 R/Pg 2164 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2088 0 obj<>110 0 R]/P 2169 0 R/Pg 2164 0 R/S/Link>>endobj2169 0 obj<>endobj2164 0 obj<>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 2191 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/StructParents 16/Tabs/S/Type/Page>>endobj2190 0 obj<>streamxœÍ\mOãHþŽÄèñI4î7Û=Z­!¼ÜÍ.˜­Fû!ˈŽI¸Äpâß_WÛIXÒ5Npe>„$„ÔSíªÇUOµ}x4)†wýۂýòËáQQôoßÙ·ÃãqQŒüq˜¿>¯ú÷ÃQ¿ŽG‡×ÏðÖéx\&¿þʎOÚì¿û{1áÇÉb–¸ÇÔJ6ìï}ýíïçû{‡§‚¹?äwû{Â}(f‚))xœ2“ð8Ñ,ÿá>tv±û©ûBvï_™êÕÙþÞ·ÖKôËÿ¹¿×q_÷ïý½vÓwv½¹Ê[×ÊPä2P´ä*!AÂ:_ڌ^ÁýÒ¾8aqÓ£$“˜+Œ4ãéÄüè8:ЭÏсju¢é0g­î)ƒ§íîeUoûg×;~šÃmò×uËRžÚ·¸„/á*UîÑ$–MîCïöB+[-ÚõS4_7ÑtÝDœñX²Ä¤<“Kw«r×ð÷Üúø÷Ú9Q”‹Tp›aö׎-Ԋæ©[qKK—`·ßZ¼æ‡Ì$—vWШÌòLímS®x¢!²kTü7Ä¡Q‚Ì»ƒ…{Ãá0˜û”k&¾aÆô;4–'hî7àõ¿P”¢¢(%áW¢Úÿºì~GñIIå'gþח9µGÂñ×¹}9ƒµã…A¢Š©?§…¬l'ŒäYº+h´;ßk$(êÐSFÂÛd~©ÉeM˜ËD‰ä²¡Êå8ár¦/Ð.®¡V˙¯ÏT+„xS‡Ìœ,•céS9Œˆ,•cÃc¶²…T’Äç-¤²Œ¡»Ø4Ƶ]¡d…€Ì¸Ò˜•—ÚÓBHDž"”‘Q†É<á¯B§‘mÝô:d!ÜÿG¸Cä˜(hea¹D|ÞG$ÐI7BC–ºšËdÓÁ`¤N±¡[u$‘Ñ‘•·IX*’0о‡Ù>w«åkˆ+/ctz¬DqÙ¡Ò¬æ™ÀÌò¬tq™÷"¡Zݓ›¶ƒ“_t/©ˆÃ*èëai%¢¹öf'®ý-PE¬¸L‰Ñµ·Æâ›q畉Ú%¨´]ËjÁÒÀŠä3"ê"’PÜò‹æê†Öž¹\AèNpïqvŸ£Ó*‡£<Ýzdrç)å:J[…ÿÄwxùJÅ'Òrm1Hµ|²n;»l_ž!ö·P¹@ҊM0–w×Z'ܚC%¦˜•â§)ńèº %l¨üÄ‚¬ƒŠÝ‚-ãG¹×R»dÅQÂ3ƒ™ÿä(}»È;QÒêå7=‡¨œÓõü¯ßàᢙÖW²áª;f(¦ZŠ[·²Ø·\!öiI¥qi­Uºo¨Ä¼²ÒAkÊ+a#iÝXfÝbúg¼Bä'²ùì¸,]tšr±Œ3€¬@a®@Ÿ™Œ#Ûú^?~i&/B]Ëù}Ãc¶¿…REJž(b4ÁØi\öj—ËÂ4„JË+«QC^AŒÔòገÊO,6š‰*^1‚«eœ¾Ta~CÏdèJ‚Á¢:UlZŒ¡š˜¼2˜½é–z}ª­YÒdÐúÉ_*}ô¦TS²"µ4·n±°/¹ˆÃ?Í¥Š7Z4ÁPn\zë,åj=¤Ä¤¶RÈ4%µ°‘ZR#¨©üÄ"¡¹B]‘èú?/–züȍ»ÆÈ7>¼3{Éün*VQš§)‰l¬¥’‚V¶ÀZB³¾#h´‰aü14´ó¬G‘!æ¨Î¼£¢NV„ý•Çe(ªþJYҗN&®øyƸ÷´q3-é£ïj<óš0YKÁMŠañÊѦ[ÃK¿ìòey$·²³?CAæk¦¹U˜•q”T¥×¦n§…sÓ;<¥à•öÍцݬ¨0hekTø14´T¸áu/©utF…ªŽ§dTcTH5%S©âvùú_&ù\t„Å«ÏÑE¶†ø2º„å¹ÿâ‡lÓr^2˜'QÅhßç¹g%³EÕÜíÅd2øJ:QÚº»ƒwüÛ·U¨]ש2l¨¢³ÚX´òó<$NÂͺY%!æå,“º$$Ôe¨<ƒjó®ÒË8Cs¤óÞlÿ=ÕN[®†áÓbËðy§v{ü¢}T=íÞ\ž@¡âß#܄£2¢Œìœ).DØÊ6.։y’¬†˜"6»ÖE`ÎU!ã:Š 5SyŒQDóQsuž–’«eœ=¯ÏþçµToýéñü©ûe8ž°È–/Fó“n>v§Ùûùé´xˆªÿœÀ–÷uT§W¸ÈUX:Y»¦Ó"V¶ÀJq#š!ÎèÍ.~•Ñ˜·+g4¡nIå1–ÑTº¥´tÞKÝ/ ‡ãÔÆeÛÏÚ³mjÃÛAyF~pEñ¬Ç!uáL¶[-ñL(' A+[›€ìšrȱZÒØð‘/IõnFuÊ¥&T.©

    FAQs

    What is the peer cluster theory? ›

    A new psychosocial model, peer cluster theory, suggests that the socialization factors that accompany adolescent development interact to produce peer clusters that encourage drug involvement or provide sanctions against drug use.

    How is peer cluster theory different from peer pressure? ›

    The potency of peer influence on drug use is not a new concept, but peer influence is a broad term. Peer cluster theory differs from peer influence in that it contends that small identifiable peer clusters determine where, when, and how drugs are used.

    What is an example of cluster theory? ›

    Examples. An example of the cluster theory in effect can be found in the California wine cluster mentioned above. The "cluster" consists of thousands of independent vineyards and hundreds of commercial wineries which supplies the vast majority of the American wine production.

    What is peer influence theory in psychology? ›

    Peer influence is when you choose to do something you wouldn't otherwise do, because you want to feel accepted and valued by your friends. It isn't just or always about doing something against your will. You might hear the term 'peer pressure' used a lot.

    Do you benefit if you have a peer group relationship why and why so? ›

    Having positive peer relationships can help healthy teen development and build important interpersonal skills that will benefit them later in life.

    Is peer pressure good or bad group discussion? ›

    There are many examples available of peer pressure where a person achieves success because of it. Like students start reading more or a player start practicing the things more and more in order to become better than others. Peer pressure is not a bad thing until and unless you are not doing anything bad or illegal.

    What are the advantages of peer group and explanation? ›

    Peer groups provide perspective outside of the individual's viewpoints. Members inside peer groups also learn to develop relationships with others in the social system. Peers, particularly group members, become important social referents for teaching other members customs, social norms, and different ideologies.

    What is a good example of clustering? ›

    Here are 7 examples of clustering algorithms in action.
    • Identifying Fake News. Fake news is not a new phenomenon, but it is one that is becoming prolific. ...
    • Spam filter. ...
    • Marketing and Sales. ...
    • Classifying network traffic. ...
    • Identifying fraudulent or criminal activity. ...
    • Document analysis. ...
    • Fantasy Football and Sports.
    Apr 4, 2019

    What is a simple example of clustering? ›

    Example 1: Retail Marketing

    Retail companies often use clustering to identify groups of households that are similar to each other. For example, a retail company may collect the following information on households: Household income. Household size.

    What is a real example of clustering? ›

    Some examples of clustering include document clustering, fraud detection, fake news detection, customer segmentation, etc. This article lists some exciting and unique clustering projects in machine learning that will help you understand the real-world applications of clustering.

    What is peer pressure in psychology example? ›

    Active peer pressure describes a situation where a person tries to convince someone else to do something. For example, two friends might encourage a third friend to drive above the speed limit since “everyone drives that fast anyway.” Passive peer pressure refers to modeled or mimicked behavior.

    How is peer pressure a strong influence on behavior? ›

    The pressure to conform (to do what others are doing) can be powerful and hard to resist. A person might feel pressure to do something just because others are doing it (or say they are). Peer pressure can influence a person to do something that is relatively harmless — or something that has more serious consequences.

    Is peer pressure social learning theory? ›

    Social learning theories assume that delinquent peer norms and/or peer pressure are the components of delinquent peer socialization that lead to subsequent adolescent delinquency. However, these specific peer influences are rarely investigated.

    How do peer groups affect behavior? ›

    “People care about what others think across all different age groups—and that influences how much they value different ideas and behaviors,” says Dr. Emily Falk at the University of Pennsylvania. She studies how social networks affect decision making. This is called social, or peer, influence.

    What is the importance of peer groups in psychology? ›

    Peer relationships provide a unique context in which children learn a range of critical social emotional skills, such as empathy, cooperation, and problem-solving strategies. Peer relationships can also contribute negatively to social emotional development through bullying, exclusion, and deviant peer processes.

    Why are peer groups important for mental health? ›

    Research by the Mental Health Foundation shows that peer support can significantly improve people's wellbeing, meaning they have fewer hospital stays, larger support networks, and better self-esteem and social skills.

    What are the positive and negative effects of peer groups? ›

    Positive peer pressure can help teens develop the coping skills necessary for adulthood. It might encourage teens to become more active in athletics or to avoid risky behaviors, which can be especially helpful during tough times. Negative peer pressure can lead teens in bad directions.

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of peer? ›

    5. Peer-to-Peer Network: advantages and disadvantages
    AdvantagesDisadvantages
    Much easier to set up than a client-server network - does not need specialist knowledgeEnsuring that viruses are not introduced to the network is the responsibility of each individual user
    4 more rows

    Where would using peer group be most beneficial? ›

    One of the most obvious benefits of using peer group analysis is that it helps investors and analysts uncover undervalued stocks.

    What is a positive effect of peer group influence? ›

    Positive peer pressure is when someone's peers influence them to do something positive that helps them grow as a person. For example, a peer with a commitment to doing well academically or excelling at their sport can inspire others to make similar goals.

    What is the conclusion of peer group? ›

    Conclusion. In conclusion, peer groups are a crucial aspect of our social lives and can have a significant impact on our behaviors, attitudes, and well-being. Positive peer groups can provide many benefits, such as emotional support, while negative peer groups can contribute to negative outcomes.

    What is the theory of peer socialization? ›

    Group socialization is the theory that an individual's peer groups, rather than parental figures, influences his or her personality and behavior in adulthood. Adolescents spend more time with peers than with parents.

    What is the cognitive theory of peer pressure? ›

    Cognitive Processes

    The idea is that there is a correlation between a developing brain and its potential to be more influenced by peer pressure, particularly when it addresses risky behavior. Basically, the mind is more likely to be swayed toward risky behavior during adolescence.

    What is an example of a peer group socialization? ›

    Peer Groups

    Peer group socialization begins in the earliest years, such as when kids on a playground teach younger children the norms about taking turns, the rules of a game, or how to shoot a basket. As children grow into teenagers, this process continues.

    Why is peer group important? ›

    Peer relationships provide a unique context in which children learn a range of critical social emotional skills, such as empathy, cooperation, and problem-solving strategies. Peer relationships can also contribute negatively to social emotional development through bullying, exclusion, and deviant peer processes.

    What are the theories on peer support? ›

    Peer support is not based on psychiatric models and diagnostic criteria. It is about understanding another's situation empathically through the shared experience of emotional and psychological pain. When people find affiliation with others they feel are “like” them, they feel a connection.

    Why is peer group important in socialization? ›

    Peers, or a group of people who have similar interests, age, background, or social status, serve as an important source of information, feedback, and support to individuals as they develop a sense of self. Peers help socialize an individual by reinforcing or punishing behaviors or interpersonal interactions.

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